In this lesson we will learn how to deal with Arabic nouns, especially how to form the feminine from the masculine, than how to form the plural from a singular, once you learn how to do it, you will also be able to form them vice versa easily.

Masculine to Feminine in Arabic:

To form a feminine word from the masculine in Arabic, you simply add taa marbuta which looks like () or ( ) depending on the word its connected to. Usually for animals, humans and professions for example:

kalb (dog masculine) kalba (dog feminine)
tefl (child masculine) tefla (child feminine)
mohandes (engineer masculine) mohandesa (engineer feminine)

Its possible also for most adjectives & some other nouns:
Sadeeq (friend masculine) Sadeeqa (friend feminine)
Hazeen (sad masculine) hazeena (sad feminine)
Kabeer (big masculine) kabeera (big feminine)

However not all animals or humans masculines can take a taa marbuta ((, in their feminine form, for example:
Asad (lion) Laboa (lioness)
Walad (boy) Bent (girl)
In Arabic, words are either masculine or feminine, so anything you may think of should take either feminine or masculine form, now you can recognize if a word is feminine or masculine by its ending, for example:
Qessa (story (is feminine because as you may have noticed it has taa marbuta ((, at the end of the word, similar are:
Shajara (tree), Saheefa (newspaper), Kora (ball), Ghorfa (room), Bohaira (lake) and therefore the adjective following these feminine words should also take the feminine form (add a taa marbuta ((, to them)
Most Arabic nouns are considered masculine if no taa marbuta is connected to them, however like any other language there are exceptions:

Arabic Nouns
Sky samaa is feminine even if there is no taa marbuta ((, at the end of the word,
Wind reeh is feminine even if its not ending with a taa marbuta.
Also some masculine proper names are ending with taa marbuta but still considered masculine name for example: osama , hamza .

The good news is that they are not many, and the general rule is add a taa marbuta ((, to form the feminine from a masculine word, and omit it to form the masculine.

Singular to Plural in Arabic:

In arabic to form the plural we use two methods: add a suffix or change the body of the word (to form an irregular plural).
A suffix (aat ) is added to form a plural usually when a word ends with a taa marbuta ((, , but before adding the suffix we first have to omit the existing ((, :
For example:
Shajara (a tree) Shajaraat (trees). So the body here is shajar to form the feminine we add to it taa marbuta ((, , to form the plural we add the suffix aat as you can see in the example above.
We can also add the suffix (aat ) even to words not ending with taa marbuta ((, , for example:
Qitar (train) Qitaraat (trains)
Mashroob (drink) Mashroobaat (drinks)

Another suffix (een ) is added to form the plural of some words (especially nationalities, religions, professions)
Amreki (American) amrekieen (Americans)
Moslem (Moslem) Moslemeen (Moslems)
Motarjem (translator) Motarjemeen (translators)

Now we will move to the irregular forms, you will notice that there are many of them, so its advised to learn words with their plurals, and most dictionaries write the definition of words with their plural form, and its not that hard as it seems, with practice all ambiguities will be clear.

The table below shows most of forms that a plural can take in Arabic, the words with question marks are our model words, and to convert a word the irregular way you first need to: remove the question mark and add a consonant for each question mark, for example the word book means ketaab in Arabic, to form the plural I wrote in the table below how to form it by showing you the form with question marks (?u?u?), meaning ketaab ?u?u? kutub. If you remove the consonant of the word ketaab respectively and put them in our model word, you will have kutub, which is obviously the plural of ketaab (book), same thing with other examples below:

Arabic Plural

a??u? (rare)
Saqr Suquur (falcons)

Dars Duruus (lessons)

Nahr Anhaar (rivers)

Haram Ahraam (pyramids)

Wajh Awjuh (methods)

Shahr Ash-hur (months)

qubla qubal (kisses)

dawla duwal (countries)

jabbaar jababera (tyrants)

usquf asaaqefa (bishops)

madrasa madares (schools)

markab marakeb (boats)

ketaab kotob (books)

safeena sufun (ships)

Wasiya Wasaaya (wills)

Hadiya hadaaya (gifts)

?u??aa? * (rare)
Qaseeda qasaaed (poems)

Hazeema hazaaem (losses)

Ghelaaf aghlefa (covers)

Hezaam ahzema (belts)

Nasek Nussak (pious)

Tajer Tujjar (merchant)

* the second consonant is doubled
Sajeen sujanaa (prisoners)

Jabaan jubanaa (cowards)

There are some other forms of forming the plural in Arabic, but they are very rare, so you dont have to worry about them right now.

Arabic NounsArabic NounsArabic NounsArabic NounsArabic Nouns

Arabic Nouns arabic nouns